Trees: What you need to Know
Trees are a beautiful and useful part of any garden. Trees provide shade, fruit, and beauty depending on the type of tree you choose. The most important thing to consider when you are adding a tree to your setting is placement. Remember the tree will grow and in the autumn it will drop its leaves.
Trees consist of three parts, the roots, the leaves, and the trunk.
The purpose of the roots is to send raw materials into the tree. The leaves will absorb Carmon dioxide from the air, as well as use the suns energy to combine this gas with the moisture sent from the roots to create sugars, thus feeding the tree. The trunk, limbs, branches, and twigs all keep the tree stable and hold the leaves so they can receive sunlight, and carry the materials throughout the tree.
The resources absorbed by the roots are pulled up by capillary attraction and the osmotic action caused by evaporation of water from the leaves. Loss of water through the leaves is called transpiration. On a summer day, a single birch tree may transpire 700 to 900 gallons of water. It is this enormous flow of water that causes a continuous flow of sap from the roots to the topmost twigs.
There are many things to consider when planting or transplanting a tree. The main consideration has to be the protection of the roots. The big root near the center of the tree is what gives the tree stability, while the fine roots are what absorb water from the soil.
The trunk of the tree is broken into three parts as well, the bark, the wood, and the pith. The pith is in the middle, and the wood is around it. The cambium is between the wood and the bark, and is central to the survival of the tree. This produces new wood and bark, and if this is severed the tree will die, as it no longer grows, and has nothing to protect it from disease or insects.
Trees have many enemies besides man. There are over 200,000 different kinds of insects that affect trees, as well as diseases like blight, drought, rot, and storms. Birds help to keep insects in check, as they eat them!
When you plant young trees, you must consider the full height and spread to which they will grow. This will determine the placement of the tree. You want to consider this because trees should not be overcrowded. It is generally most economical to plant young trees.
You can plant mature trees, although it is more difficult and expensive. It will however provide immediate results, especially if it was planted for shade for a terrace for example.
There is a new wilt proof spray that can be sprayed to tree leaves when a mature tree is being transplanted. This will keep the leaves from wilting until the roots can be reestablished. It is best to do this in the spring or late fall.
The root must be planted into very fertile soil at least 2 feet deep and 1 foot wider than the spread of the roots. The soil should be mixed with leaf mould, peat, and loam. The technique is basically the same for planting grass, plants, and flowers.
Use manure sparingly when planting a tree, as this can burn the tree root. The deeper you make the hole, the better the tree will be. You can cultivate around the tree once it is planted. If the subsoil is clay or building rubble, this must be removed, and fertile soil must be brought it.